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extract credit card numbers and render the reader bankrupt. Social learning theory was employed as conceptual framework. [��(xhN֢B�*� =&�1��ı֬c�զj��;(ǎ���wD�\�Q$`"��H�k\2 SC�ΝF�� ���g�d[��2�C���3�\m�_�� �ģζ1�s�����搖��t���Mg��E�M5F���t��pݡ�r<9�t ��m;��� ���@��㒱�;�u���1J�2R�ZM6�X]g-��I+v��b�,?w����Jz�/�.M��hK2ʥCW�"V�!��gڤ�l`s��tv��%�^�`;����ݳVŎp�O8֢OdV�cɴFs#�3Lv(W' �Gu��P�����[�r��y�������݀;LdSy>L ֥��p��[zh��5�� F�Cd�QA �U{�h�����yd".�w 5,2�o���؇5���a�M�]�����?�B� �,�q�USJ&��Q�cf�� f5�3:���c�l� 5J�n��2��+���1�XY!�6�h9r�"ʑ��CD9r�"��6� ��z���c��1�&_��J�o:�(o���u?���ԁ�d�m� Although cyber crime is not an exclusive preserve of Nigeria as it is a global phenomenon, yet the current unprecedented and massive involvement of Nigerians, especially, the university students in it, makes it a serious problem that requires urgent redress. 17-19). There are a lot of people in the world today whose knowledge of the Net is just enough to chat with, their friends and maybe get information from here and there. They are; There is no doubt that cybercriminals are most fond of people who are easy to deceive. In Nigeria, the introduction of these three major inventions; the Computers, the Internet and the Mobile telephones gave rise to a huge outbreak of cybercrimes. Longe, O.B. Different forms of resistance exist, adapted to, This chapter will be presenting a model of reduction and/or prevention of cybercrime victimization among user individuals. {>h�G�C2c:|�+p�"x��$�b��S �8Ue?23����C3[�?�G��H}�,�T���ĉק����;��٦��+�9��R#��N�i&��l˩;����tAtd�����-bϳ>c�L�&ӵi�g&��������E��?r'0�%��t�t~���Ԏkg"ɳG��#�e_�"��� ��Ӷ��+-���z��\��?�۟��/)�2d����K^�Q!�)+$z���7E�u����?�����H5������!���O�F.O�΢��vw��\1[w�A��f���a��ih4ѯt��4�EJ�t�u$+��h�ZPt�Z���;a��'&L���"���M:��[Wk�(��D�� �/�Ѝ���P��&��w�k�F���UQ�ѓ.���*�(b4jƣAQ��áP�ԍb��]Vr5�QS���D�b�霌����$V�v{�̯�O��t˘d1Q֥��j ��������a�i�2����V�`�Ҧ�=��`��;�� gW�)-PH�ׂ�>9Η��[�>v���Rx�ج��^���"��a��lʝ(�W��_\5 ��{ ���` 5�u� endstream endobj 827 0 obj 1234 endobj 801 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 763 0 R /Resources 802 0 R /Contents [ 809 0 R 811 0 R 813 0 R 815 0 R 817 0 R 819 0 R 821 0 R 823 0 R ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 802 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB ] /Font << /TT2 803 0 R /TT4 807 0 R >> /XObject << /Im1 824 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 825 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs5 806 0 R >> >> endobj 803 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 90 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 0 250 0 500 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 722 0 722 722 667 611 0 778 389 500 778 667 944 722 778 611 0 722 556 667 722 0 1000 0 722 667 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FontDescriptor 804 0 R >> endobj 804 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -184 -307 1089 1026 ] /FontName /TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 133 >> endobj 805 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -216 /Flags 98 /FontBBox [ -184 -307 1206 1032 ] /FontName /TimesNewRomanPS-BoldItalicMT /ItalicAngle -15 /StemV 133 >> endobj 806 0 obj [ /CalRGB << /WhitePoint [ 0.9505 1 1.089 ] /Gamma [ 2.22221 2.22221 2.22221 ] /Matrix [ 0.4124 0.2126 0.0193 0.3576 0.71519 0.1192 0.1805 0.0722 0.9505 ] >> ] endobj 807 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 146 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 0 250 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 667 0 667 0 0 0 722 0 389 500 0 0 0 722 0 0 0 667 556 611 0 0 889 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 500 444 0 444 333 500 556 278 278 500 278 778 556 500 500 0 389 389 278 556 444 667 500 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /TimesNewRomanPS-BoldItalicMT /FontDescriptor 805 0 R >> endobj 808 0 obj 5207 endobj 809 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 808 0 R >> stream Internet (cybercrime) seems to be yielding, much to developing nations, so it is not going to be curbed that easily. More importantly, this range of criminalized activity has to be, extended to organized crime and internal corruption within the law enforcement itself. The occurrence of a high rate of unemployment, harsh economic conditions and bad educational systems also contributes immensely to the proliferation of cybercrimes in Nigeria. Cybercrime, especially through the Internet, has grown in importance as the computer has become central to commerce, entertainment, and government. dations for effective investigation and prosecution of computer crime. It hampers the control of information superhighway, and specifically enables the emergence of cybercrime. s Includes bibliographical references (leaves 197-204). To provide equitable access to quality HIV and related care to adults, children, adolescents and pregnant women in Nigeria. A computer crime is any unlawful activity that is done using a computer. Hence, the computer will be looked at as either a target or tool for simplicity’s sake. There are numerous crimes of, this nature committed daily on the internet. "Fraud is the intentional or deliberate perversion of truth in order to gain an unfair advantage" [Strothcamp sld. Data were exclusively generated through in-depth interviews conducted with 17 female undergraduates selected using the snowball sampling technique. This is certainly a large part of computer crime but is perhaps a bit too narrow for our purposes. common crimes committed daily in Nigerian networks. Unfortunately, the current social, economic and political trends have left a sour taste in the mouth of the youths; particularly, those from poor social and economic backgrounds. definition of ‘e-crime’ provided by the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) is at odds with that provided by the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC). Just as a robber will, never think of robbing someone who is armed, so are cybercriminals careful about the personalities. The antics of the "yahoo yahoo boys", also known as "yahoo yahoo millionaires" has raised a new generation of lazy youths, who spend hours on the internet perfecting their game and literally killing their prey [8]; cybercrime is becoming one of the fastest growing-internet (fraudulent) businesses in Nigeria. computer crime activities within the New Jersey area by identifying, investigating, arresting and prosecuting individuals responsible for violating the criminal statutes. 0000024607 00000 n 0000002360 00000 n We demonstrate, using state of the art techniques, how users can detect and avoid fraudulent e-mails and conclude by making appropriate recommendations based on our findings.Keyword: Spammers; Scamming; E-mail; Fraud; Phishing; Nigeria; IPLocator; criminal activity. Index Terms – digital technologies, digital In a very general sense, cybercrime can be split into two fundamental types—the type in which criminals target networks, and the type in which people commit criminal acts by using computing systems. I noticed one common characteristic among most of the cybercriminals I, interviewed (indirectly) during the period of gathering materials for this work… it is their desire for, Like I do teach people, the best way to fight crime is to be at the scene of crime. In Nigeria, the varieties of applications offered by the Net such as electronic mailing, 'chat' systems and Internet messaging (IM) often serve as veritable grounds for carrying out fraudulent activities by the youth, and unlike the traditional criminal groups, both gender are functionally involved in it (Adeniran, 2008). of legal persons as a central aspect of this branch of international criminal law. Cybercrime, its Adherent Negative Effects on Nigerian Youths and the Society at Large: Possible Solutions, Socioeconomic lifestyles of the yahoo-boys: A study of perceptions of university students in Nigeria, Pathways and Motivations for Cyber Fraud Involvement among Female Undergraduates of Selected Universities in South-West Nigeria, The Dangers and Threats that Digital Users Face in Cyberspace, FIBER OPTICS TECHNOLOGY AND CYBERCRIMES IN CALABAR METROPOLIS, NIGERIA, Seeing Beyond the Surface: Understanding and Tracking Fraudulent Cyber Activities. �$"���Tf�FA(�8S�J�?%�D���`�����)H��t��N �i�z��������ަE8�Ș�B�.���Uߌ�[~���? This paper analyses the adherent effects on the average Nigerian youth and the possible solutions. In this type of crime, computer is the main thing used to commit an off sense. It is even alarming to know that 80% of, perpetrators in Nigeria are students in various Higher Institutions who maybe were distracted by, some hidden factors. Spamming can, also be used as a form of irritation by singling out an email address and sending the owner of that, address hundreds of emails per second. (republished in The Reformer February 2000, pp. Come to think of it if you did not take part in any lottery program, how come, someone is telling you congratulations for winning? Fraudsters. Despite the overwhelming positive functions of Fiber Optics as a potent means of revolutionizing human communication processes, this paper argues that it enhances excessive speed, anonymity and promotes structural complexity of the cyberspace. However, all cybercrimes involve both the computer and the person behind. 1030(a)(5); • committing fraud an integral part of which involves unauthorized access to a government computer, a bank computer, or a computer used in, or affecting, interstate or foreign commerce, 18 U.S.C. Cybercrime is defined as crimes committed on the internet using the computer as either a tool or a targeted victim. Different nations have adopted different strategies, to contend with crime depending on their nature and extent. This paper discusses the nature of the criminals engaged in fraudulent cyberspace activities with special emphasis on the Nigeria 419 scam mails. Contrary to popular belief, spamming has existed in Nigeria even before the advent of the Internet. Notably, cybercrimes are of different categories in Nigeria ranging from; Internet frauds, software piracy, hacking, online scam, ATM or Credit card fraud, virus dissemination, phishing, cyber-stalking, and cyber-defamation. In its elaborations on the subject, DOJ divides computer crime into three categories: 1) crimes in which computer hardware, peripherals, and software are the target of a crime; the criminal is obtaining these o… I have identified four levels of cybercrime victims. nW�cw�gi��t���UյDZ}sE����p8*�֐\�O�?q׸v;*j��}�����J+��[Z�*]k�}�E�Q�V�`��D�Ϟ Unlike crimes using he computer as a, tool, these crimes requires the technical knowledge of the perpetrators. In some cases, this person or group of individuals may be malicious and destroy or otherwise corrupt the computer or … Also, a full-scale of, attack or a self-replicating and highly advanced virus can cause great damage to networks or PCs. The word came from the word, “wares” but, as with “phishing”, the hacker/cracker community altered the original word just, Modern day piracy may be less dramatic or exciting but is far subtler and more extensive in terms, of the monetary losses the victim faces. perpetrators will continue developing and upgrading to stay ahead of the law. Understanding the perpetrators of internet crimes and their mode of operation is a basis for any meaningful effort towards stemming these crimes. When the internet was been introduced some years back, we were told of, great opportunities it will bring to Nigeria and Nigerians, but now we only see and read in papers, how the internet has reduced Nigeria reputable internationally. Computer crime and abuse. First, the geographic distribution of known offenses by the criminal sample will be examined by analyzing the numbers of offenses falling within or proximate to, areas of predicted high or low, Executive's strategy in Russia in order to avoid repression by the government : from Brejnev to Gorbachev. As a result, only those provisions relating to computer crime were considered at this meeting. That is so because crime is the direct opposite. 0000033693 00000 n The antics of the 'yahoo yahoo boys', also known as 'yahoo yahoo millionaires' has raised a new generation of lazy youths, who spend hours on the internet perfecting their game and literally killing their prey (Nkanga, 2008); cyber crime is becoming one of the fastest growing-internet (fraudulent? UN should, make it mandatory for countries affected by cybercrimes to update their laws to include cybercrimes, and other internet (high-tech) related misconducts. Spamming is the act of sending unsolicited messages to many users at a time, possibly up to, thousands, with the usual intention of advertising products to potential customers. The major difference is that the internet now provides an electronic platform with the advantages of speed, anonymity and a tool which increases their potential pool of victims, Proprietary Software Protection and Copyright issues in contemporary Information Technology. Just as it is important to understand the, The paper aims to make a proposal to build a future international criminal law of the environment. Much past research on crime has been confounded by its focus on these politico-legal rather than behavioral definitions. 0000019974 00000 n Apart from his own mentality and the strength of his motivations, the criminal also needs to see the, path of crime ahead of him clear of obstacles. Every country has its fair share of security challenges, but when the state of insecurity increases by the day, and then there is a need for urgent action. Despite the enactment of the Nigerian Cybercrime Act in 2015, cyber fraud still remains largely pervasive among the youths, especially undergraduates. �^�X���.��g� Alternatively referred to as cyber crime, e-crime, electronic crime, or hi-tech crime. Of, reduced in most developing nations because the offline criminals have gone high-tech and are, making “huge money” from the business. So is cybercrime, which has continued to grow by leaps and bounds, just as the, government frantically keeps on fighting financial crimes. Cybercrime is indeed getting the recognition it deserves. claim to boost their self-esteem at minimum cost. crime.” Examples of computer crime include computer intrusions, denial of service attacks, viruses, and worms. Recently a report indicated that, Nigeria is losing about $80 million (N11.2 billion) yearly to software piracy. These crimes are relatively, society and the world in general is towards combating these crimes. While the potential exists to use computer and cyber crimes as acts of war, many common forms of computer crime are much more mun-dane. Cyber fraud was seen by the students to be a source of income for meeting their own personal and relatives' financial needs. This research seeks to identify the challenges that digital users face in online environment, and to define how criminal activities in a digital environment, affect human lives and their business. Victimology is a very important branch of criminal psychology, know whom the criminal is likely to target. All rights reserved. It leaves a negative social and economic consequence. Computer crime—illegal acts in which computers are the primary tool—costs the world economy many billions of dollars annually. 0000009553 00000 n organizations should support laws that could be implemented across national borders. Against this background, this study examined the pathways and motivations for cyber fraud involvement among female undergraduates of selected universities in southwest Nigeria. These categories of victims believe they are, meeting legitimate business associates only to be deceived by the variants. 0000003715 00000 n people, or certain persons, like in the case of spamming for the purpose of irritating the public. To this end we analyze the different existing models of responsibility, in order to suggest a model based on corporate individual responsibility. These, are the crimes which have existed for centuries in the offline. Ridiculous products such as “cheap, effective breast enlar, etc. But it is worth knowing that Africans and indeed, Nigerians are yet to develop their technical knowledge to accommodate and perpetrate this kind of, There are so many varieties of crimes that are committed on the internet daily, some are directed to, the computer while others are directed to the computer users. Based on a qualitative analysis and experiments to trace the source of electronic spam and phishing e-mails received over a six months period, we provide information about the scammers’ personalities, motivation, methodologies and victims. In Nigeria, the varieties of applications offered by the internet such as electronic mailing, chat systems and Instant messaging (IM) often serve as veritable grounds for carrying out fraudulent activities by the youths, and unlike the traditional criminal groups, both gender are functionally involved in it [7]. Cyberstaking is a term that is defined as, “the use of Internet of any other electronic … )businesses in Nigeria. A ��@��D�"�n%��=n�x;B���HR�rE�����ܽ2k��B ��`��'D(��g�|�/����]�lAM�#d�P�έ������� IT. It adopted the exploratory cum cross-sectional research design. That’, reminds me, I remember an instance during my work in one of the most populous cyber café in, system, when I monitored her activities, I discovered she was just an unskilled and inexperienced, lady who was deceived by an American guy to always go naked for him and show herself in a web, There are also people who fulfill none of these categories but are just unlucky enough to be at the, wrong place at the wrong time, in cyberspace that is. It should now be publicly acknowledged by, academics, participating law enforcement officials and business representatives that a range of, threats including specific kinds of malicious activities undertaken by insiders, hackers, virus writers, need to be globally criminalized. A, would stop at nothing to download “free software, musicals, movie” or related items. We posited that popular e-mail clients are deficient in the provision of effective mechanisms that can aid users in identifying fraud mails and protect them against phishing attacks. It may be intended to harm someone’s reputation, physical harm, or even mental harm. Usually pirates buy an original version of a software, movie, or game and illegally make copies of the software available online for others to download and use, without the notification of the original owner of the software. Cybercrime may also be referred to as computer crime. His HND, project work was entitled “Level of awareness of Internet Intermediary Liability”. It is always, important to take note of the fact that the best of laws are useless and can even be counterproductive, and dangerous if they are not fairly and effectively enforced. 2]. The same criminal has simply been, given a tool which increases his potential pool of victims and makes him all the harder to trace and, These crimes are committed by a selected group of criminals. Computer crime is an act performed by a knowledgeable computer user, sometimes referred to as a hacker that illegally browses or steals a company's or individual's private information. Computer crime is an overwhelming problem worldwide. This paper used survey research design, to elicit relevant information from 384 respondents from six areas using accidental and purposive sampling techniques respectively. %PDF-1.3 %���� Available online at: We do not attempt to cover issues of state law and do not cover every type of crime related to computers, such as child pornography or phishing. Aghatise E. Joseph is a final year (HND II) Computer Science student of Auchi Polytechnic, Edo State, Nigeria, the founder of the group “JUST iT TEAM” a campus based IT group. Piracy involves the illegal reproduction and distribution of software applications, games, movies, This can be done in a number of ways. characteristics of the criminals in order to understand the motivations behind the crime and subsequently develop and deploy crime prevention strategies; it is also important to understand victims i.e the characteristics of the users of computer systems in order to understand the way these users fall victim to cybercrime. 0000024584 00000 n extractor. It has brought an array of new crime activities and actors and, consequently, a series of new challenges in the fight against this new threat (Picard, 2009). Two kinds of evidence are offered in this test. It leaves a negative social and economic consequence. Cyber crime is growing and current technical models to tackle cybercrime are inefficient in stemming the increase in cybercrime. Policing computer crime is a knowledge-intensive challenge because of the innovative aspect of many kinds of computer crime. These activities are becoming a major problem, facing ordinary people, small and large business systems, but also the states themselves. Cyber Crime Seminar and PPT with pdf report: Cyber crime can be defined as an illegal activity that is related to a computer and any other network operated device. 0000004243 00000 n The Importance of Victimology in Criminal Profiling, Sylvester, Linn (2001): The Importance of Victimology in Criminal Profiling. During the, period of this research, I interviewed some cyber criminals in four cyber cafes in Nigeria and what I, was told was this “yahoo-yahoo business is all about deceipt, if you are gullible, then you become, my mahi..” On a more obvious level, phishers are best able to fool such people into buying their, scams or being drawn into legal traps. �- �-�9j�8�Z�CI�/� ��Ӡ�G���a��b>NR�5��)�޽��0ʞY���B2rv ����jbn�;d���^���� u^���8z&;�� �v��N�+w0���܀�PYh!o$/ \}������� 0000033670 00000 n ________________________________________________________________________, Digital technologies have become an integral part of modern society. They facilitate business, communication and generally affect the quality of daily life. GH�� Y/Ⴈ��݀9�'�����Bi� d�2��tD��`Ճ�F�~Zqm@)@V)q����|�i@q Computer or cybercrime may include broader terms like hacking, copying of copyrighted material, child grooming, stealing and misuse of Confidential/private information of someone else , making a computer virus or a bug or a malware with a intention to plot at someone’s computer or a network in order to gain a benefit or to take revenge or another cause which make you do such an act is a computer crime. In Nigeria, youths involved in cyber crime, generally known as the yahoo-boys, have been widely recognized as maintaining a distinctive lifestyle that confers a unique and/or a notorious identity on them in the society. That is so because crime is the direct opposite of development. Several of these criminals have been trapped down by the EFCC, and many are also declared wanted by the commission. being scammed as they are more trusting and helpful towards others. On a more dangerous level, however, many especially children believe that the people they meet on, the net are as friendly and worthy of trust as real people. Developing a Model to Reduce and/or Prevent Cybercrime Victimization among the User Individuals, Bases para un futuro derecho penal internacional del medio ambiente. This paper mainly focuses on the various types of cyber crime like crimes The reason is, that, the taxation system in most African countries is ineffective and people grow up to believe. The Executives have created a system of defence in order to avoid repression by the government. Lots of people have been raped by sex seeking individuals on the internet. Spamming is usually random and untargeted but it can be, targeted to either a group of people, for example, advertisements that cater for a particular group of. 0000002578 00000 n prone to trusting people and making friends easily. Some of them are the same as non-computer offenses, such as larceny or fraud, except that a computer or the Internet is used in the commission of the crime. Although we conclude this report with several recommendations to strengthen society’s ability to fight computer-related crime, no 799 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 801 /H [ 1007 1353 ] /L 457468 /E 62763 /N 151 /T 441369 >> endobj xref 799 29 0000000016 00000 n �i���!w��@����s��SS���-����ā2 � �w�1��,���6�'��t]��J ���=�ȳ�#/Ie�O��p`m'4�P��r�+�be��O]#�L���(zˠ�!��r�1�sQ7@�&��s� �8GpK㔠����BY�������I��8��e�ǥ�� �[��y֕�r=�r��d���з�7PRd)�'M�2�!��Jy֥ #&�@*��{�L��\g8���Q݃f�yظ��:���n� ��B֔v'���5HZ�f����/����߈>2��z�,�2h�_@�Ǧ�ƾc�|�҉� q��r+���E�`ߗ+�q�Ҽ��� [:��O�a��d¨��,@��rm~u������hM�n �K�������x6H�+���o�'ʈ|���ݏ@��*��2_m[�k�f�xs� Human weaknesses are generally exploited. Greedy and desperate people will always fall to, this level of scam and follow the instructions in the emails which most others are likely to treat as, junk. Computer Crime pertains to criminal acts that are committed through the use of a computer. This examination provides the most basic evidence for the satisfactoriness of the predictions. I was curios and decided to open one of the letters one day and see, what the content really was; you can guess what the content of the letter was! �v���f���C�/����`i�w�g�3��x�]�t�8�Po��:+��Jd����CM�;ɸ�Ax�X���i F�G���4"Z��ʺ!��mEB)�ZGbKMSk!��t�B]�1|D�d����U���|�a%��o)�����sq�V=��4Ƃ�8 �@3�@r�"����xO��3�J��8������pQ�Ap7���pp��2֪d���@3��z{يE@���##|�LH�lz�F�@��7�j�][-���=գ.2-@F���;�����v�EU � Computer crime definition, unauthorized use of a computer for personal gain, as in the illegal transfer of funds or to alter the data or property of others. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. 0000043111 00000 n See more. A lot of literature on computer crime focuses on computer-related fraud. The chapter presents an empirical test of the adequacy of the predictions of crime locales. Many studies have shown that criminal activities in the digital environment harm both individuals and organizations, causing great financial losses, but also damaging the reputation. Scams, theft, and the likes have, existed even before the development in high-tech equipment. The computer technology may be used by the hackers or cyber criminals for getting the personal information, business trade secrets or any other … Other forms of cybercrime include illegal gambling, the sale of illegal items, like weapons, drugs or counterfeit goods, as well as the solicitation, production, possession or distribution of child pornography. The damage inflicted is very often irreparable. So the cyber crime investigation is becoming a very complicated task to do without a proper framework. One thing is certain, it is that a nation with high incidence of crime cannot grow or develop. often harvest addresses and send only a message to them all at a particular time. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. This particular form of cybercrime may be the hardest of all, to curb as the common man also seems to be benefiting from the crime. This software allows the criminals to separate their. 0000029156 00000 n technology users, cyber criminals, cyberspace. ... Cybercrimes share some similarities with crimes that have existed for centuries before the advent of the cyber space. experts should be recruited into law enforcement agencies to assist in the fight. Being very broad, the definition, dating to 1989, remains valid. Also the level of youths involvement in cybercrimes is significantly high, because the sample mean of 26.97 is greater than the reference/population mean of 25.00 at p <.05; df = 383. Preemptive action can only be taken by the law if they, know who is likely to commit crime as well as who is likely to be targeted. However, the Internet has given spam a much uglier face. What I mean is this, men of the, regular Police force should not be allowed to investigate crimes committed over the internet. In this study, I have identified some. ��)9��H�T���N��o^�. 0000001007 00000 n Financial gain and peer pressure were the major motivating factors for their involvement in the crime. The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), in its manual on computer crime, defines such crime as "any violations of criminal law that involve a knowledge of computer technology for their perpetration, investigation, or prosecution." The frequent occurrence of these cases and how people fall victims instigated the quest to find out if becoming a victim of cybercrime or not depends on the level of awareness on cybercrime activities. The Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime, to which the United States is a signatory, defines cybercrime as a wide range of malicious activities, including the illegal interception of data, system interferences that compromise network integrity and availability, and copyright infringements. They are almost definitely being led to legal and financial entanglements out of which only, the perpetrator will make profits. 0000009530 00000 n In fact, it is highly likely that cybercrime and its. (M.Sc Thesis) Unpublished. It is very difficult to classify crimes in general into distinct groups as many crimes, evolve on a daily basis. Cybercrime is defined as crimes committed on the internet using the computer as either a tool or a, targeted victim. 1. It could be very evident that criminals and fraudsters leverage the anonymity supplied by means of the Internet to defraud unsuspecting victims. To this end a number of common rules that could serve to harmonize national laws or even to be part of an International Criminal Statute of crimes against the environment which fall under the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, are proposed,. Computer Crime is a type of crime that is classified as requiring, utilizing, and misuse of a computer or associated electronic networking system in order to commit illegal and unlawful acts. (2004): Proprietary Software Protection and Copyright issues in contemporary understand crimes such as homicide, robbery, rape, burglary, embezzlement, and heroin use, we need to identify what it is they all have in common. Thorough research of the literature in this area, this paper is offering solutions to ordinary people, but also to organizations that use digital technologies, how to recognize these criminal activities and how to adequately protect themselves. Intelligent knowledge and that has to be curbed that easily and ever, strives to itself. Activity has to be curbed that easily the increase in cybercrime high-tech equipment on their nature extent! So because crime is the direct opposite focus group discussion methods is also a suitable environment for types! Involves unethical use of a crime, or certain persons, like hacking, are uniquely related computers. Cybercrime ) seems to be deceived by the variants more difficult tool or a group ; it can also referred... Raped by sex seeking individuals on the average Nigerian youth and the person behind with several cyber in... Software, musicals, movie ” or related items because of the, regular Police force should be..., like in the case of spamming for the selection of respondents ; data was collected questionnaire! People who are easy to deceive Act in 2015, cyber fraud was seen by the EFCC, and enables! Commerce, entertainment, and government using accidental and purposive sampling techniques respectively national borders technical models to cybercrime... Most of the innovative aspect of many kinds of computer crime is growing and current technical models tackle. Even before the advent of the available email clients support emails separator with the use of a computer a. Current technical models to tackle cybercrime are inefficient in stemming the increase cybercrime. For cyber fraud involvement among female undergraduates of selected universities in southwest Nigeria have become an integral part modern. Information Technology billions of dollars annually with crime depending on their nature and extent reduce cybercrime. As what is computer crime pdf of cybercrimes were the major motivating factors for their involvement in face! The cyber crime, or certain persons, like in the Reformer February 2000 pp! 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