An army autopsy recorded that White's death was by natural causes, resulting from an inflammation of the pleura and cardiac covering, and his body was sent for a church burial. Until the abolition of formal corporal punishment in the British Army in 1881, the floggings ordered by Regimental Court Martial were invariably inflicted across the shoulders with the cat o'nine tails.  White's shoulders began bleeding after the first 20 strokes but he did not cry out in pain at any time during the punishment.  But significantly by 1873 it was reported that the prison was to close and it was “almost tenantless”. The regiment was marched to the Spur Battery, attended by the band and drums and fifes, to witness the punishment.  Day and Reid stated that the hot weather of the summer of 1846 may have contributed to White's death. It was abolished from the army and navy as a disciplinary action, in 1874. In January 1861 there was a report of a prisoner at Fort Clarence being sentenced to 50 lashes.  By the end of the punishment White had suffered significant blood loss, which soaked his trousers; this occurred despite regulations stating that flogging was not intended to break the skin. 1,000 Rochester women chase a bigamist out of the City. This softening may, however, have arisen as a result of bacterial infection of the blood, which was not yet known to science.  It would appear that there was medical oversight on the facility as the following year it was announced that “the Lady of Staff-Surgeon Murray” gave birth to a daughter.. In the 18th century whipping or flogging was a common punishment in the British army and navy.  Day dissented with Wilson's findings on the grounds that he did not consider that the pleura could be affected by the muscles.  11 June 1819, Cambridge Chronicle and Journal. This may have been due to a predominance of MPs who had been or were associated with the military, and men who had been educated at boarding school. However rather than using their dominance in the House to end flogging the Liberal Government wanted to first explore ‘alternatives’. The prime minister Lord John Russell noted in the House of Commons that he supported the eventual abolition of the punishment.  Hall sent a separate report on the death to the Army Medical Department, noting that White's back was well healed. But significantly by 1873 it was reported that the prison was to close and it was “almost tenantless”. This legislation determined what punishments could be applied to miscreant soldiers. In 1866, a major case was brought under trial. The ‘alternatives’ considered included – placing a man in irons, fastening him to a horse or wagon to be dragged on through a day’s march, or to carry a burden for a certain period. Soldiers and sailors could be sentenced to be flogged with a Cat o’ Nine tails in front of their peers for minor ‘crimes’ – even misdemeanours that would be overlooked or only attract a reprimand if committed by an officer. It would appear that there was medical oversight on the facility as the following year it was announced that “the Lady of Staff-Surgeon Murray” gave birth to a daughter.  When he was with the regiment at the Cavalry Barracks, Hounslow, in 1846 White had, whilst drunk, argued with his sergeant and touched him on his chest with a metal bar. This could be one of the reasons that Arthur Otway who had serviced Chatham and Rochester as an MP, decided to lead on its abolition. Thirteen jurors were sworn in and the inquest attended by officers of the regiment and members of the public.  His shirt, doused in water, was placed over his back and he was covered with his overcoat and taken to the barracks hospital. When deaths occurred the cause was usually attributed to fever or disease rather than from the punishment. To deal with the valid concern that the use of flogging was having a detrimental impact on recruitment, the Duke of Cambridge, in 1859, introduced an arrangement where all men on entering the army were categorised as ‘First Class’. While Britian's traditional institutions were being modernised during. , Wakley reviewed White's case, considered that the army's autopsy had been too cursory and ordered an inquest be held. By 1852 the army was anticipating that the review of the Mutiny Act would lead to the abolition of corporal punishment so ordered the building of additional cells at Fort Clarence. It’s not clear from the news reports whether the extra cells were built by 1856 but it was reported at this time that the prison was full.  19 November 1859, Oxford University and City Herald. The United States Army abolished flogging in 1861. The flogging was carried out on 15 June with White tied to a ladder in front of the regiment. Fort Clarence was first used to accommodate “unfortunate persons belonging to the army who were afflicted with insanity”. Fortunately – if that word can be used in these circumstances – the doctor intervened which was not universal, and the remainder of his punishment was remitted; not so many years previous it would have continued once the prisoner had recovered..  At one point White asked for a drink of water, which was given. In September 1844, in response to a growing need for prison placements the army closed the Fort Clarence asylum – returning some of the patients to Fort Pitt – and made it ready to receive prisoners. , The inquest reconvened from 9.30 am on 27 July, after Wilson had completed his autopsy. According to the Torah (Deuteronomy 25:1-3) and Rabbinic law lashes may be given for offenses that do not merit capital punishment, and may not exceed 40. From the early 19th century public opinion was growing against the use of flogging – a means of discipline that the armies of Europe and America ended long before the British.  At least one corporal and one private fainted while witnessing the punishment, though one witness at the coroner's court recounted that six men fainted. I’ve not discovered the case made during the campaign, but Otway had stated in Parliament, just prior to the election, that the Country should “relieve British soldiers from the unnecessary degradation of corporal punishment”. After one year of uninterrupted good conduct they could be restored to ‘First Class’. It is little wonder that a man had to serve a prison sentence after being flogged because it would have been weeks before he would be fit for duty. Frederick John White was a private in the British Army's 7th Hussars.  The question of culpability was legally difficult as wounding at the time was defined as breaking of the skin and White's skin was healed by the time of his death. Even now, it is still technically not completely removed …  In higher sentences the punishment was carried out in stages with the victim being given periods of rest in between to allow the skin to heal. James A. Garfield. I would not be surprised if Medway’s population with its close association with the military would have been very familiar with the implications for a man sentenced to be flogged and would have opposed it.  Deaths from floggings were not unknown, though were more common in foreign postings, such as to British India, than on home service. In the civil sphere, “whipping” was … By 1852 the army was anticipating that the review of the Mutiny Act would lead to the abolition of corporal punishment so ordered the building of additional cells at Fort Clarence. On September 28, 1850 Congress abolished flogging in the Navy but failed to substitute another system of discipline. 11 June 1819, Cambridge Chronicle and Journal.  In July 1845 it was confirmed that the fort was ready to receive prisoners up to 200. The Liberals prevarication on this matter enabled the Conservatives to claim that they had at least taken steps “to place the practice of flogging more in harmony with decency and enlightenment”. The fort was built in 1811/1812 as part of the wider fortification of Chatham Dockyard – in anticipation of Napoleon invading. Fortunately – if that word can be used in these circumstances – the doctor intervened which was not universal, and the remainder of his punishment was remitted; not so many years previous it would have continued once the prisoner had recovered. Soldiers so classified would not be liable for corporal punishment in peace time, except for “aggravated mutinous conduct”. However, flogging endured as a criminal punishment until the early 1830s, 9 which may explain greater public revulsion to it as a military punishment in the nineteenth century. He thought that the skin, which was well healed, disguised the internal issues.  In the 7th Hussars corporal punishment was administered by the regimental farriers, men experienced in this role on campaign, who were instructed to strike as hard as they could or risk punishment themselves. The Times recorded its disappointment in the decision of the House of Commons and hoped to soon see the army governed without flogging during peace.  The inquest met again on 20 July at the same inn at 9.30 am A large number of the public attended, including five magistrates. After the total abolition of flogging, Otway at a meeting in Rochester on the Egyptian War, expressed his gratification for the splendid discipline that had been maintained in the army that no longer relied on flogging to maintain discipline.. This was another step in the right direction but corporal punishment was still being used in peace time. George Ballingall, Professor of military surgery at the University of Edinburgh, wrote in the Monthly Journal of Medical Science disputing Wakley and Wilson's impartiality and the quality of the evi…  It would seem that the change in the approach to discipline introduced by the Duke of Cambridge had had a more positive affect on improving discipline that the lash. An unrelated news report in 1869 described Otway as a “straightforward politician whose political career had been characterised by consistency throughout, and by fidelity to his constituents”. Tagged as: Army, Arthur Otway, Chatham, flogging, Fort Clarence, mental health, MP, Soldiers, Spur Battery. Charles Darwin dies. He was sentenced to 50 lashes and to be imprisoned for 12 months with hard labour; the Commander-in-chief commuted the 50 lashes to 25.  On 9 July White's back and chest, which had broken out in boils, was treated with a mustard plaster. Nature has it sorted!  The court sentenced him to 150 lashes with a cat of nine tails, made from nine knotted leather thongs, the maximum number of lashes the court was permitted to sentence.  On 11 July White lost sensation in his extremities and had difficulty passing urine. Punishment was not over quickly as the lash was applied at about one stroke every 12 seconds. Flogging has been a common punishment since ancient times. He attended but found it was too late to intervene and White died in his presence at 8.30 pm. At this time another MP stated that he would be bringing forward a motion that similarly removed the power to flog members of the voluntary corps when employed on active service.. This power was terminated in England, Scotland, and Wales by the Criminal Justice Act of 1948, although corporal punishment for mutiny, incitement to mutiny, and gross personal violence to an officer of a prison when committed by a male person was permitted in England and Wales until 1967. It would seem that the change in the approach to discipline introduced by the Duke of Cambridge had had a more positive affect on improving discipline that the lash. One private, with experience in other regiments, recounted that the 7th Hussars flogged more harshly than other units where trumpeters, who were often boys, administered the punishment. , The use of flogging in the army was restricted in 1859 so that, in peacetime, only those men considered of "bad character" could be flogged; the sentence remained freely available to court-martials held in wartime. The summer of 1846 may have contributed to White 's brother had been a abolition. 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